iptables -L -n
The default Jenkins installation runs on ports 8080 and 8443. Typically, HTTP/HTTPS servers run on ports 80 and 443, respectively. But these ports are considered privileged on Unix/Linux systems, and the process using them must be owned by root. Running Jenkins as root is not recommended - it should be run as its own user. One solution is to front Jenkins with a web server such as Apache, and let it proxy requests to Jenkins, but this requires maintaining the Apache installation as well. In situations where you are wanting to run Jenkins on port 80 or 443 (i.e. HTTP/HTTPS), but you do not want to setup a proxy server you can use iptables on Linux to forward traffic.
Follow the Ubuntu installation instructions to install and configure the initial Jenkins installation on Ubuntu 18.04 or later. These instructions are known to not work on Ubuntu versions prior to 18.04.
In order to forward traffic from 80/443 to 8080/8443, first you must ensure that iptables has allowed traffic on all 4 of these ports. Use the following command to list the current iptables configuration:
iptables -L -n
You should see in the output entries for 80, 443, 8080, and 8443. Here is an example output for comparison.
ain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)target prot opt source destination target prot opt source destination ACCEPT tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 tcp dpt:443 ACCEPT tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 tcp dpt:80 ACCEPT tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 tcp dpt:8080 ACCEPT tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 tcp dpt:8443 ACCEPT all -- 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 state RELATED,ESTABLISHED ACCEPT icmp -- 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 ACCEPT all -- 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 ACCEPT tcp -- 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 state NEW tcp dpt:22 REJECT all -- 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 reject-with icmp-host-prohibited Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination REJECT all -- 0.0.0.0/0 0.0.0.0/0 reject-with icmp-host-prohibited Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination target prot opt source
If you dont see entries for these ports, then you need to run commands (as root or with sudo) to add those ports. For example, if you see none of these and need to add them all, you would need to issue the following commands:
sudo iptables -I INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport 8443 -j ACCEPT sudo iptables -I INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport 8080 -j ACCEPT sudo iptables -I INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT sudo iptables -I INPUT 1 -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
I used -I INPUT 1. In a lot of iptables documentation/examples, you will see -A INPUT. The difference is that -A appends to the list of rules, while -I INPUT 1 inserts before the first entry. Usually when adding new accept ports to iptables configuration, you want to put them at the beginning of the ruleset, not the end. Run iptables -L -n again and you should now see entries for these 4 ports.
Once traffic on the required ports are allowed, you can run the command to forward port 80 traffic to 8080, and port 443 traffic to 8443. The commands look like this:
sudo iptables -A PREROUTING -t nat -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 80 -j REDIRECT --to-port 8080 sudo iptables -A PREROUTING -t nat -i eth0 -p tcp --dport 443 -j REDIRECT --to-port 8443
You can verify the forwarding rules using below command.
[root@xyz~]# iptables -L -t nat Chain PREROUTING (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination REDIRECT tcp -- anywhere anywhere tcp dpt:http redir ports 8080 REDIRECT tcp -- anywhere anywhere tcp dpt:https redir ports 8443 Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination Chain POSTROUTING (policy ACCEPT) target prot opt source destination
Once these rules are set and confirmed with iptables -L -n, and once your Jenkins instance is up and running on port 8080, attempt to access your Jenkins instance on port 80 instead of 8080. It should work and your URL should stay on port 80 - in other words, it should not get redirected to 8080. The fact that forwarding from 80 to 8080 (or 443 to 8443) should remain hidden from the client.
Using the iptables command to change port configuration and routing rules only changes the current, in-memory configuration. It does not persist between restarts of the iptables service. So, you need to make sure you save the configuration to make the changes permanent.
Saving the configuration is slightly different between Red Hat rpm based and Debian-based systems. On a Red Hat-based system (Fedora, CentOS, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, etc), issue the following command:
sudo iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables
On a Debian-based system (Debian, Ubuntu, Mint, etc), issue the following command:
sudo sh -c "iptables-save > /etc/iptables.rules"
The iptables-restore command will need to be executed manually, or your
system configured to automatically run it on boot, against the
/etc/iptables.rules file you have created, in order for your iptables
configuration to be retained across reboots.
On Ubuntu, the fastest way is to install
iptables-persistent after configuring iptables.
It will automatically create the required files from the current configuration and load them on boot.
sudo apt-get install iptables-persistent
See https://help.ubuntu.com/community/IptablesHowTo for other Ubuntu options. There are many other resources describing this; please consult your system’s documentation or search on the internet for information specific to your flavor of Linux.
If you are unsure at all about what kind of system you have, consult that system’s documentation on how to update iptables configuration.
Some Linux distributions (CentOS 8, Red hat Enterprise Linux 8, CentOS 7, etc.) ship with firewalld which serves as a front-end for iptables. Configuration thru firewalld is done via the firewall-cmd command. Instead of using any of the iptables commands mentioned above, all you should need to do is something like:
# allow incoming connections on port 80. # You can also use --add-service=http instead of adding a port number sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=80/tcp --permanent sudo firewall-cmd --permanent \ --add-forward-port=port=80:proto=tcp:toaddr=127.0.0.1:toport=8080 # allow incoming connections on port 443. # You can also use --add-service=https instead of adding a port number sudo firewall-cmd --add-port=443/tcp --permanen t sudo firewall-cmd --permanent \ --add-forward-port=port=443:proto=tcp:toaddr=127.0.0.1:toport=8443 sudo firewall-cmd --reload
With the above commands, jenkins can be configured to run on localhost:8080 and/or localhost:8443 (depending if you need or want to do SSL or not)
firewalld will then create the required iptables rules so that incoming connections on port 80 are forwarded to jenkins on 8080 (and 443 is forwarded to 8443).